metanit - c# hashset from array



Как получить фактический элемент из HashSet<T>? (8)

Вы также можете использовать метод ToList () и применить к нему индекс.

HashSet<string> mySet = new HashSet();
mySet.Add("mykey");
string key = mySet.toList()[0];

https://ffff65535.com

Я прочитал этот вопрос о том, почему это невозможно, но не нашел решения проблемы.

Я хотел бы получить элемент из .NET HashSet<T> . Я ищу метод, который будет иметь эту подпись:

/// <summary>
/// Determines if this set contains an item equal to <paramref name="item"/>, 
/// according to the comparison mechanism that was used when the set was created. 
/// The set is not changed. If the set does contain an item equal to 
/// <paramref name="item"/>, then the item from the set is returned.
/// </summary>
bool TryGetItem<T>(T item, out T foundItem);

Поиск набора для элемента с таким методом будет O (1). Единственный способ получить элемент из HashSet<T> - это перечислить все элементы, которые являются O (n).

Я не нашел никакого обходного пути для этой проблемы, кроме того, чтобы создать собственный HashSet<T> или использовать Dictionary<K, V> . Любая другая идея?

Заметка:
Я не хочу проверять, содержит ли HashSet<T> элемент. Я хочу получить ссылку на элемент, который хранится в HashSet<T> потому что мне нужно его обновить (не заменяя его другим экземпляром). Элемент, который я передал бы в TryGetItem был бы равен (согласно механизму сравнения, который я передал конструктору), но это не будет той же ссылкой.


Другой трюк сделает Reflection, обратившись к внутренней функции InternalIndexOf из HashSet. Имейте в виду, что имена полей жестко закодированы, поэтому, если эти изменения в будущих версиях .NET будут нарушены. Следующее решение поддерживает только один конкретный тип (например, строку), но также может быть сделано общим, я думаю.

public static class Extensions
{
    private static Func<HashSet<string>, string, string> getHashSetInternalValue;

    static Extensions()
    {
        ParameterExpression targetExp = Expression.Parameter(typeof(HashSet<string>), "target");
        ParameterExpression itemExp = Expression.Parameter(typeof(string), "item");

        var slotsExp = Expression.Field(targetExp, typeof(HashSet<string>).GetField("m_slots", System.Reflection.BindingFlags.NonPublic | System.Reflection.BindingFlags.Instance));

        var indexExp = Expression.Call(targetExp, typeof(HashSet<string>).GetMethod("InternalIndexOf", System.Reflection.BindingFlags.NonPublic | System.Reflection.BindingFlags.Instance), itemExp);

        var slotExp = Expression.ArrayAccess(slotsExp, indexExp);
        var valueExp = Expression.Field(slotExp, "value");

        var testExp = Expression.GreaterThanOrEqual(indexExp, Expression.Constant(0));
        var conditionExp = Expression.Condition(testExp, valueExp, Expression.Constant(null, typeof(string)));

        getHashSetInternalValue = Expression.Lambda<Func<HashSet<string>, string, string>>(conditionExp, new[] { targetExp, itemExp }).Compile();
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets the internal item value equal to <paramref name="item"/> or null if <paramref name="item"/> is not contained
    /// </summary>
    public static string GetInternalValue(this HashSet<string> hashet, string item)
    {
        return getHashSetInternalValue(hashet, item);
    }
}

Контрольная работа:

var set = new HashSet<string>(StringComparer.OrdinalIgnoreCase) { "TABLE" };
var intern = set.GetInternalValue("table"); 

Console.WriteLine(intern); // prints "TABLE"

Как насчет перегрузки сопоставления равенства строк:

  class StringEqualityComparer : IEqualityComparer<String>
{
    public string val1;
    public bool Equals(String s1, String s2)
    {
        if (!s1.Equals(s2)) return false;
        val1 = s1;
        return true;
    }

    public int GetHashCode(String s)
    {
        return s.GetHashCode();
    }
}
public static class HashSetExtension
{
    public static bool TryGetValue(this HashSet<string> hs, string value, out string valout)
    {
        if (hs.Contains(value))
        {
            valout=(hs.Comparer as StringEqualityComparer).val1;
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            valout = null;
            return false;
        }
    }
}

Затем объявите HashSet следующим образом:

HashSet<string> hs = new HashSet<string>(new StringEqualityComparer());

Модифицированная реализация @ mp666 ответит, поэтому ее можно использовать для любого типа HashSet и позволяет переопределить сопоставитель равенства по умолчанию.

public interface IRetainingComparer<T> : IEqualityComparer<T>
{
    T Key { get; }
    void ClearKeyCache();
}

/// <summary>
/// An <see cref="IEqualityComparer{T}"/> that retains the last key that successfully passed <see cref="IEqualityComparer{T}.Equals(T,T)"/>.
/// This class relies on the fact that <see cref="HashSet{T}"/> calls the <see cref="IEqualityComparer{T}.Equals(T,T)"/> with the first parameter
/// being an existing element and the second parameter being the one passed to the initiating call to <see cref="HashSet{T}"/> (eg. <see cref="HashSet{T}.Contains(T)"/>).
/// </summary>
/// <typeparam name="T">The type of object being compared.</typeparam>
/// <remarks>This class is thread-safe but may should not be used with any sort of parallel access (PLINQ).</remarks>
public class RetainingEqualityComparerObject<T> : IRetainingComparer<T> where T : class
{
    private readonly IEqualityComparer<T> _comparer;

    [ThreadStatic]
    private static WeakReference<T> _retained;

    public RetainingEqualityComparerObject(IEqualityComparer<T> comparer)
    {
        _comparer = comparer;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// The retained instance on side 'a' of the <see cref="Equals"/> call which successfully met the equality requirement agains side 'b'.
    /// </summary>
    /// <remarks>Uses a <see cref="WeakReference{T}"/> so unintended memory leaks are not encountered.</remarks>
    public T Key
    {
        get
        {
            T retained;
            return _retained == null ? null : _retained.TryGetTarget(out retained) ? retained : null;
        }
    }


    /// <summary>
    /// Sets the retained <see cref="Key"/> to the default value.
    /// </summary>
    /// <remarks>This should be called prior to performing an operation that calls <see cref="Equals"/>.</remarks>
    public void ClearKeyCache()
    {
        _retained = _retained ?? new WeakReference<T>(null);
        _retained.SetTarget(null);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Test two objects of type <see cref="T"/> for equality retaining the object if successful.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="a">An instance of <see cref="T"/>.</param>
    /// <param name="b">A second instance of <see cref="T"/> to compare against <paramref name="a"/>.</param>
    /// <returns>True if <paramref name="a"/> and <paramref name="b"/> are equal, false otherwise.</returns>
    public bool Equals(T a, T b)
    {
        if (!_comparer.Equals(a, b))
        {
            return false;
        }

        _retained = _retained ?? new WeakReference<T>(null);
        _retained.SetTarget(a);
        return true;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets the hash code value of an instance of <see cref="T"/>.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="o">The instance of <see cref="T"/> to obtain a hash code from.</param>
    /// <returns>The hash code value from <paramref name="o"/>.</returns>
    public int GetHashCode(T o)
    {
        return _comparer.GetHashCode(o);
    }
}

/// <summary>
/// An <see cref="IEqualityComparer{T}"/> that retains the last key that successfully passed <see cref="IEqualityComparer{T}.Equals(T,T)"/>.
/// This class relies on the fact that <see cref="HashSet{T}"/> calls the <see cref="IEqualityComparer{T}.Equals(T,T)"/> with the first parameter
/// being an existing element and the second parameter being the one passed to the initiating call to <see cref="HashSet{T}"/> (eg. <see cref="HashSet{T}.Contains(T)"/>).
/// </summary>
/// <typeparam name="T">The type of object being compared.</typeparam>
/// <remarks>This class is thread-safe but may should not be used with any sort of parallel access (PLINQ).</remarks>
public class RetainingEqualityComparerStruct<T> : IRetainingComparer<T> where T : struct 
{
    private readonly IEqualityComparer<T> _comparer;

    [ThreadStatic]
    private static T _retained;

    public RetainingEqualityComparerStruct(IEqualityComparer<T> comparer)
    {
        _comparer = comparer;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// The retained instance on side 'a' of the <see cref="Equals"/> call which successfully met the equality requirement agains side 'b'.
    /// </summary>
    public T Key => _retained;


    /// <summary>
    /// Sets the retained <see cref="Key"/> to the default value.
    /// </summary>
    /// <remarks>This should be called prior to performing an operation that calls <see cref="Equals"/>.</remarks>
    public void ClearKeyCache()
    {
        _retained = default(T);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Test two objects of type <see cref="T"/> for equality retaining the object if successful.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="a">An instance of <see cref="T"/>.</param>
    /// <param name="b">A second instance of <see cref="T"/> to compare against <paramref name="a"/>.</param>
    /// <returns>True if <paramref name="a"/> and <paramref name="b"/> are equal, false otherwise.</returns>
    public bool Equals(T a, T b)
    {
        if (!_comparer.Equals(a, b))
        {
            return false;
        }

        _retained = a;
        return true;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets the hash code value of an instance of <see cref="T"/>.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="o">The instance of <see cref="T"/> to obtain a hash code from.</param>
    /// <returns>The hash code value from <paramref name="o"/>.</returns>
    public int GetHashCode(T o)
    {
        return _comparer.GetHashCode(o);
    }
}

/// <summary>
/// Provides TryGetValue{T} functionality similar to that of <see cref="IDictionary{TKey,TValue}"/>'s implementation.
/// </summary>
public class ExtendedHashSet<T> : HashSet<T>
{
    /// <summary>
    /// This class is guaranteed to wrap the <see cref="IEqualityComparer{T}"/> with one of the <see cref="IRetainingComparer{T}"/>
    /// implementations so this property gives convenient access to the interfaced comparer.
    /// </summary>
    private IRetainingComparer<T> RetainingComparer => (IRetainingComparer<T>)Comparer;

    /// <summary>
    /// Creates either a <see cref="RetainingEqualityComparerStruct{T}"/> or <see cref="RetainingEqualityComparerObject{T}"/>
    /// depending on if <see cref="T"/> is a reference type or a value type.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="comparer">(optional) The <see cref="IEqualityComparer{T}"/> to wrap. This will be set to <see cref="EqualityComparer{T}.Default"/> if none provided.</param>
    /// <returns>An instance of <see cref="IRetainingComparer{T}"/>.</returns>
    private static IRetainingComparer<T> Create(IEqualityComparer<T> comparer = null)
    {
        return (IRetainingComparer<T>) (typeof(T).IsValueType ? 
            Activator.CreateInstance(typeof(RetainingEqualityComparerStruct<>)
                .MakeGenericType(typeof(T)), comparer ?? EqualityComparer<T>.Default)
            :
            Activator.CreateInstance(typeof(RetainingEqualityComparerObject<>)
                .MakeGenericType(typeof(T)), comparer ?? EqualityComparer<T>.Default));
    }

    public ExtendedHashSet() : base(Create())
    {
    }

    public ExtendedHashSet(IEqualityComparer<T> comparer) : base(Create(comparer))
    {
    }

    public ExtendedHashSet(IEnumerable<T> collection) : base(collection, Create())
    {
    }

    public ExtendedHashSet(IEnumerable<T> collection, IEqualityComparer<T> comparer) : base(collection, Create(comparer))
    {
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Attempts to find a key in the <see cref="HashSet{T}"/> and, if found, places the instance in <paramref name="original"/>.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="value">The key used to search the <see cref="HashSet{T}"/>.</param>
    /// <param name="original">
    /// The matched instance from the <see cref="HashSet{T}"/> which is not neccessarily the same as <paramref name="value"/>.
    /// This will be set to null for reference types or default(T) for value types when no match found.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>True if a key in the <see cref="HashSet{T}"/> matched <paramref name="value"/>, False if no match found.</returns>
    public bool TryGetValue(T value, out T original)
    {
        var comparer = RetainingComparer;
        comparer.ClearKeyCache();

        if (Contains(value))
        {
            original = comparer.Key;
            return true;
        }

        original = default(T);
        return false;
    }
}

public static class HashSetExtensions
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Attempts to find a key in the <see cref="HashSet{T}"/> and, if found, places the instance in <paramref name="original"/>.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="hashSet">The instance of <see cref="HashSet{T}"/> extended.</param>
    /// <param name="value">The key used to search the <see cref="HashSet{T}"/>.</param>
    /// <param name="original">
    /// The matched instance from the <see cref="HashSet{T}"/> which is not neccessarily the same as <paramref name="value"/>.
    /// This will be set to null for reference types or default(T) for value types when no match found.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>True if a key in the <see cref="HashSet{T}"/> matched <paramref name="value"/>, False if no match found.</returns>
    /// <exception cref="ArgumentNullException">If <paramref name="hashSet"/> is null.</exception>
    /// <exception cref="ArgumentException">
    /// If <paramref name="hashSet"/> does not have a <see cref="HashSet{T}.Comparer"/> of type <see cref="IRetainingComparer{T}"/>.
    /// </exception>
    public static bool TryGetValue<T>(this HashSet<T> hashSet, T value, out T original)
    {
        if (hashSet == null)
        {
            throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(hashSet));
        }

        if (hashSet.Comparer.GetType().IsInstanceOfType(typeof(IRetainingComparer<T>)))
        {
            throw new ArgumentException($"HashSet must have an equality comparer of type '{nameof(IRetainingComparer<T>)}' to use this functionality", nameof(hashSet));
        }

        var comparer = (IRetainingComparer<T>)hashSet.Comparer;
        comparer.ClearKeyCache();

        if (hashSet.Contains(value))
        {
            original = comparer.Key;
            return true;
        }

        original = default(T);
        return false;
    }
}

То, о чем вы просили, было добавлено в .NET Core год назад и недавно было добавлено в .NET 4.7.2 :

    In .NET Framework 4.7.2 we have added a few APIs to the standard Collection types
 that will enable new functionality as follows.  ‘TryGetValue‘ is added to SortedSet
 and HashSet to match the Try pattern used in other collection types.

Подпись выглядит следующим образом (найдено в .NET 4.7.2 и выше):

    //
    // Summary:
    //     Searches the set for a given value and returns the equal value it finds, if any.
    //
    // Parameters:
    //   equalValue:
    //     The value to search for.
    //
    //   actualValue:
    //     The value from the set that the search found, or the default value of T when
    //     the search yielded no match.
    //
    // Returns:
    //     A value indicating whether the search was successful.
    public bool TryGetValue(T equalValue, out T actualValue);

PS .: В случае, если вам интересно, есть функция, которую они добавляют в будущем - HashSet.GetOrAdd (T).


У HashSet есть метод Contains (T) .

Вы можете указать IEqualityComparer, если вам нужен пользовательский метод сравнения (например, сохранить объект person, но использовать SSN для сравнения равенства).


Это на самом деле огромное упущение в наборе коллекций. Вам понадобится только словарь ключей или HashSet, который позволяет искать ссылки на объекты. Так много людей просили об этом, почему это не исправлено, это вне меня.

Без сторонних библиотек лучшим обходным решением является использование Dictionary<T, T> с ключами, идентичными значениям, так как Словарь сохраняет свои записи как хеш-таблицу. По производительности это то же самое, что и HashSet, но он, естественно, тратит память (размер указателя на запись).

Dictionary<T, T> myHashedCollection;
...
if(myHashedCollection.ContainsKey[item])
    item = myHashedCollection[item]; //replace duplicate
else
    myHashedCollection.Add(item, item); //add previously unknown item
...
//work with unique item

Этот метод был добавлен в .NET Framework 4.7.2.NET Core 2.0 перед ним); см. HashSet<T>.TryGetValue . Ссылаясь на источник :

/// <summary>
/// Searches the set for a given value and returns the equal value it finds, if any.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="equalValue">The value to search for.
/// </param>
/// <param name="actualValue">
/// The value from the set that the search found, or the default value
/// of <typeparamref name="T"/> when the search yielded no match.</param>
/// <returns>A value indicating whether the search was successful.</returns>
/// <remarks>
/// This can be useful when you want to reuse a previously stored reference instead of 
/// a newly constructed one (so that more sharing of references can occur) or to look up
/// a value that has more complete data than the value you currently have, although their
/// comparer functions indicate they are equal.
/// </remarks>
public bool TryGetValue(T equalValue, out T actualValue)




hashset