data - ASP.NET身份DbContext混淆



efcore oracle (3)

关于IdentityDbContext有很多困惑,在Stackoverflow中快速搜索,你会发现这些问题:
为什么Asp.Net Identity IdentityDbContext是一个黑盒?
如何在使用Visual Studio 2013 AspNet Identity时更改表名称?
合并MyDbContext与IdentityDbContext

为了回答所有这些问题,我们只需要了解IdentityDbContext只是从DbContext继承的类。
我们来看看IdentityDbContext的源代码

/// <summary>
/// Base class for the Entity Framework database context used for identity.
/// </summary>
/// <typeparam name="TUser">The type of user objects.</typeparam>
/// <typeparam name="TRole">The type of role objects.</typeparam>
/// <typeparam name="TKey">The type of the primary key for users and roles.</typeparam>
/// <typeparam name="TUserClaim">The type of the user claim object.</typeparam>
/// <typeparam name="TUserRole">The type of the user role object.</typeparam>
/// <typeparam name="TUserLogin">The type of the user login object.</typeparam>
/// <typeparam name="TRoleClaim">The type of the role claim object.</typeparam>
/// <typeparam name="TUserToken">The type of the user token object.</typeparam>
public abstract class IdentityDbContext<TUser, TRole, TKey, TUserClaim, TUserRole, TUserLogin, TRoleClaim, TUserToken> : DbContext
    where TUser : IdentityUser<TKey, TUserClaim, TUserRole, TUserLogin>
    where TRole : IdentityRole<TKey, TUserRole, TRoleClaim>
    where TKey : IEquatable<TKey>
    where TUserClaim : IdentityUserClaim<TKey>
    where TUserRole : IdentityUserRole<TKey>
    where TUserLogin : IdentityUserLogin<TKey>
    where TRoleClaim : IdentityRoleClaim<TKey>
    where TUserToken : IdentityUserToken<TKey>
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Initializes a new instance of <see cref="IdentityDbContext"/>.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="options">The options to be used by a <see cref="DbContext"/>.</param>
    public IdentityDbContext(DbContextOptions options) : base(options)
    { }

    /// <summary>
    /// Initializes a new instance of the <see cref="IdentityDbContext" /> class.
    /// </summary>
    protected IdentityDbContext()
    { }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the <see cref="DbSet{TEntity}"/> of Users.
    /// </summary>
    public DbSet<TUser> Users { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the <see cref="DbSet{TEntity}"/> of User claims.
    /// </summary>
    public DbSet<TUserClaim> UserClaims { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the <see cref="DbSet{TEntity}"/> of User logins.
    /// </summary>
    public DbSet<TUserLogin> UserLogins { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the <see cref="DbSet{TEntity}"/> of User roles.
    /// </summary>
    public DbSet<TUserRole> UserRoles { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the <see cref="DbSet{TEntity}"/> of User tokens.
    /// </summary>
    public DbSet<TUserToken> UserTokens { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the <see cref="DbSet{TEntity}"/> of roles.
    /// </summary>
    public DbSet<TRole> Roles { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the <see cref="DbSet{TEntity}"/> of role claims.
    /// </summary>
    public DbSet<TRoleClaim> RoleClaims { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Configures the schema needed for the identity framework.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="builder">
    /// The builder being used to construct the model for this context.
    /// </param>
    protected override void OnModelCreating(ModelBuilder builder)
    {
        builder.Entity<TUser>(b =>
        {
            b.HasKey(u => u.Id);
            b.HasIndex(u => u.NormalizedUserName).HasName("UserNameIndex").IsUnique();
            b.HasIndex(u => u.NormalizedEmail).HasName("EmailIndex");
            b.ToTable("AspNetUsers");
            b.Property(u => u.ConcurrencyStamp).IsConcurrencyToken();

            b.Property(u => u.UserName).HasMaxLength(256);
            b.Property(u => u.NormalizedUserName).HasMaxLength(256);
            b.Property(u => u.Email).HasMaxLength(256);
            b.Property(u => u.NormalizedEmail).HasMaxLength(256);
            b.HasMany(u => u.Claims).WithOne().HasForeignKey(uc => uc.UserId).IsRequired();
            b.HasMany(u => u.Logins).WithOne().HasForeignKey(ul => ul.UserId).IsRequired();
            b.HasMany(u => u.Roles).WithOne().HasForeignKey(ur => ur.UserId).IsRequired();
        });

        builder.Entity<TRole>(b =>
        {
            b.HasKey(r => r.Id);
            b.HasIndex(r => r.NormalizedName).HasName("RoleNameIndex");
            b.ToTable("AspNetRoles");
            b.Property(r => r.ConcurrencyStamp).IsConcurrencyToken();

            b.Property(u => u.Name).HasMaxLength(256);
            b.Property(u => u.NormalizedName).HasMaxLength(256);

            b.HasMany(r => r.Users).WithOne().HasForeignKey(ur => ur.RoleId).IsRequired();
            b.HasMany(r => r.Claims).WithOne().HasForeignKey(rc => rc.RoleId).IsRequired();
        });

        builder.Entity<TUserClaim>(b => 
        {
            b.HasKey(uc => uc.Id);
            b.ToTable("AspNetUserClaims");
        });

        builder.Entity<TRoleClaim>(b => 
        {
            b.HasKey(rc => rc.Id);
            b.ToTable("AspNetRoleClaims");
        });

        builder.Entity<TUserRole>(b => 
        {
            b.HasKey(r => new { r.UserId, r.RoleId });
            b.ToTable("AspNetUserRoles");
        });

        builder.Entity<TUserLogin>(b =>
        {
            b.HasKey(l => new { l.LoginProvider, l.ProviderKey });
            b.ToTable("AspNetUserLogins");
        });

        builder.Entity<TUserToken>(b => 
        {
            b.HasKey(l => new { l.UserId, l.LoginProvider, l.Name });
            b.ToTable("AspNetUserTokens");
        });
    }
}


基于源代码,如果我们想将IdentityDbContext与我们的DbContext合并,我们有两个选择:

第一选项:
创建一个从IdentityDbContext继承的DbContext并可以访问这些类。

   public class ApplicationDbContext 
    : IdentityDbContext
{
    public ApplicationDbContext()
        : base("DefaultConnection")
    {
    }

    static ApplicationDbContext()
    {
        Database.SetInitializer<ApplicationDbContext>(new ApplicationDbInitializer());
    }

    public static ApplicationDbContext Create()
    {
        return new ApplicationDbContext();
    }

    // Add additional items here as needed
}


额外的笔记:

1)我们还可以使用以下解决方案更改asp.net标识默认表名称:

    public class ApplicationDbContext : IdentityDbContext
    {    
        public ApplicationDbContext(): base("DefaultConnection")
        {
        }

        protected override void OnModelCreating(System.Data.Entity.DbModelBuilder modelBuilder)
        {
            base.OnModelCreating(modelBuilder);
            modelBuilder.Entity<IdentityUser>().ToTable("user");
            modelBuilder.Entity<ApplicationUser>().ToTable("user");

            modelBuilder.Entity<IdentityRole>().ToTable("role");
            modelBuilder.Entity<IdentityUserRole>().ToTable("userrole");
            modelBuilder.Entity<IdentityUserClaim>().ToTable("userclaim");
            modelBuilder.Entity<IdentityUserLogin>().ToTable("userlogin");
        }
    }

2)此外,我们可以扩展每个类并将任何属性添加到像'IdentityUser','IdentityRole'等类。

    public class ApplicationRole : IdentityRole<string, ApplicationUserRole>
{
    public ApplicationRole() 
    {
        this.Id = Guid.NewGuid().ToString();
    }

    public ApplicationRole(string name)
        : this()
    {
        this.Name = name;
    }

    // Add any custom Role properties/code here
}


// Must be expressed in terms of our custom types:
public class ApplicationDbContext 
    : IdentityDbContext<ApplicationUser, ApplicationRole, 
    string, ApplicationUserLogin, ApplicationUserRole, ApplicationUserClaim>
{
    public ApplicationDbContext()
        : base("DefaultConnection")
    {
    }

    static ApplicationDbContext()
    {
        Database.SetInitializer<ApplicationDbContext>(new ApplicationDbInitializer());
    }

    public static ApplicationDbContext Create()
    {
        return new ApplicationDbContext();
    }

    // Add additional items here as needed
}

为了节省时间,我们可以使用AspNet Identity 2.0 Extensible Project Template来扩展所有的类。

第二选项:(不推荐)
如果我们自己编写所有代码,我们实际上不必从IdentityDbContext继承。
所以基本上我们可以继承DbContext并从IdentityDbContext源代码实现我们的定制版本的“OnModelCreating(模型构建器构建器)”

https://ffff65535.com

默认MVC 5应用程序在IdentityModels.cs中附带了这段代码 - 这段代码适用于默认模板的所有ASP.NET Identity操作:

public class ApplicationDbContext : IdentityDbContext<ApplicationUser>
{
    public ApplicationDbContext()
        : base("DefaultConnection")
    {
    }
}

如果我使用实体框架使用视图来支撑一个新的控制器,并在对话框中创建一个“新数据上下文...”,我会为我生成这个:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Data.Entity;
using System.Linq;
using System.Web;

namespace WebApplication1.Models
{
    public class AllTheOtherStuffDbContext : DbContext
    {
        // You can add custom code to this file. Changes will not be overwritten.
        // 
        // If you want Entity Framework to drop and regenerate your database
        // automatically whenever you change your model schema, please use data migrations.
        // For more information refer to the documentation:
        // http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/data/jj591621.aspx

        public AllTheOtherStuffDbContext() : base("name=AllTheOtherStuffDbContext")
        {
        }

        public System.Data.Entity.DbSet<WebApplication1.Models.Movie> Movies { get; set; }

    }
} 

如果我使用EF搭建另一个控制器+视图,比如说为一个动物模型,这个新行将在public System.Data.Entity.DbSet<WebApplication1.Models.Movie> Movies { get; set; }下自动生成public System.Data.Entity.DbSet<WebApplication1.Models.Movie> Movies { get; set; } public System.Data.Entity.DbSet<WebApplication1.Models.Movie> Movies { get; set; } public System.Data.Entity.DbSet<WebApplication1.Models.Movie> Movies { get; set; } - 像这样:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Data.Entity;
using System.Linq;
using System.Web;

namespace WebApplication1.Models
{
    public class AllTheOtherStuffDbContext : DbContext
    {
        // You can add custom code to this file. Changes will not be overwritten.
        // 
        // If you want Entity Framework to drop and regenerate your database
        // automatically whenever you change your model schema, please use data migrations.
        // For more information refer to the documentation:
        // http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/data/jj591621.aspx

        public AllTheOtherStuffDbContext() : base("name=AllTheOtherStuffDbContext")
        {
        }

        public System.Data.Entity.DbSet<WebApplication1.Models.Movie> Movies { get; set; }
        public System.Data.Entity.DbSet<WebApplication1.Models.Animal> Animals { get; set; }

    }
} 

ApplicationDbContext (用于所有ASP.NET身份的东西)从IdentityDbContext继承, IdentityDbContext继承自DbContextAllOtherStuffDbContext (用于我自己的东西)从DbContext继承。

所以我的问题是:

我应该为所有其他自己的模型使用这两个( ApplicationDbContextAllOtherStuffDbContext )中的哪一个? 还是应该使用默认的自动生成的ApplicationDbContext因为它不应该成为使用它的问题,因为它是从基类DbContext ,否则会有一些开销? 你应该在你的应用程序中只使用一个DbContext对象来存放你的所有模型(我已经阅读过了),所以我甚至不应该考虑在一个应用程序中同时使用ApplicationDbContextAllOtherStuffDbContext ? 或者ASP.NET MVC 5中的最佳实践是什么?


如果深入了解IdentityDbContext的抽象,则会发现它看起来就像您的派生DbContext。 最简单的路线是Olav的答案,但如果你想更多地控制创建的内容,并且少一点依赖Identity包,请查看我的问题和答案 。 如果您遵循链接,则有一个代码示例,但总括而言,您只需将所需的DbSets添加到您自己的DbContext子类中。


这是一个人们晚了,但下面是我的实施。 您还会注意到我删除了更改KEYs默认类型的功能:有关哪些详细信息可以在以下文章中找到:

笔记:
应该指出的是,你不能使用Guid's钥匙。 这是因为在引擎盖下它们是一个Struct ,因此没有拆箱,这将允许它们从通用的<TKey>参数进行转换。

类看起来像:

public class ApplicationDbContext : IdentityDbContext<ApplicationUser, CustomRole, string, CustomUserLogin, CustomUserRole, CustomUserClaim>
{
    #region <Constructors>

    public ApplicationDbContext() : base(Settings.ConnectionString.Database.AdministrativeAccess)
    {
    }

    #endregion

    #region <Properties>

    //public DbSet<Case> Case { get; set; }

    #endregion

    #region <Methods>

    #region

    protected override void OnModelCreating(DbModelBuilder modelBuilder)
    {
        base.OnModelCreating(modelBuilder);

        //modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new ResourceConfiguration());
        //modelBuilder.Configurations.Add(new OperationsToRolesConfiguration());
    }

    #endregion

    #region

    public static ApplicationDbContext Create()
    {
        return new ApplicationDbContext();
    }

    #endregion

    #endregion
}

    public class ApplicationUser : IdentityUser<string, CustomUserLogin, CustomUserRole, CustomUserClaim>
    {
        #region <Constructors>

        public ApplicationUser()
        {
            Init();
        }

        #endregion

        #region <Properties>

        [Required]
        [StringLength(250)]
        public string FirstName { get; set; }

        [Required]
        [StringLength(250)]
        public string LastName { get; set; }

        #endregion

        #region <Methods>

        #region private

        private void Init()
        {
            Id = Guid.Empty.ToString();
        }

        #endregion

        #region public

        public async Task<ClaimsIdentity> GenerateUserIdentityAsync(UserManager<ApplicationUser, string> manager)
        {
            // Note the authenticationType must match the one defined in CookieAuthenticationOptions.AuthenticationType
            var userIdentity = await manager.CreateIdentityAsync(this, DefaultAuthenticationTypes.ApplicationCookie);

            // Add custom user claims here

            return userIdentity;
        }

        #endregion

        #endregion
    }

    public class CustomUserStore : UserStore<ApplicationUser, CustomRole, string, CustomUserLogin, CustomUserRole, CustomUserClaim>
    {
        #region <Constructors>

        public CustomUserStore(ApplicationDbContext context) : base(context)
        {
        }

        #endregion
    }

    public class CustomUserRole : IdentityUserRole<string>
    {
    }

    public class CustomUserLogin : IdentityUserLogin<string>
    {
    }

    public class CustomUserClaim : IdentityUserClaim<string> 
    { 
    }

    public class CustomRoleStore : RoleStore<CustomRole, string, CustomUserRole>
    {
        #region <Constructors>

        public CustomRoleStore(ApplicationDbContext context) : base(context)
        {
        } 

        #endregion
    }

    public class CustomRole : IdentityRole<string, CustomUserRole>
    {
        #region <Constructors>

        public CustomRole() { }
        public CustomRole(string name) 
        { 
            Name = name; 
        }

        #endregion
    }




asp.net-identity